27. Hallin R, Gudmundsson G, Suppli Ulrik C, Nieminen MM, Gislason T, Lindberg E, et al. Nutritional status and long-term mortality in hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Respir Med 2007; 101(9):1954–60.
28. Prescott E, Almdal T, Mikkelsen KL, Tofteng CL, Vestbo J, Lange P: Prognostic value of weight change in chronic obstrctive pulmonary disease; results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur Respir J 2002; 20(3):539–44.
29. Divo M, Cote C, De Torres JP et al.Comorbidities and risk of mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2012;186(2), 155–61.
30. Kessler R, Faller M, Weitzenblum E. “Natural history” of pulmonary hypertension in a series of 131 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Am. J.Respir. Crit. Care Med.2001; 164(2), 219–24.
31. Shaw JG, Dent AG, Passmore LH. Genetic influences on right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). BMC Pulm. Med.2012; 12, 25
32. Chaouat A, Savale L, Chouaid C. Role for interleukin-6 in COPD-related pulmonary hypertension. Chest 2009; 136(3), 678–87
33. Wells JM, Washko GR, Han MK et al. Pulmonary arterial enlargement and acute exacerbations of COPD. N. Engl. J. Med 2012; 367(10), 913–21.
34. Maclay JD, Macnee W. Cardiovascular disease in COPD: mechanisms. Chest 2013; 143(3), 798–807
35. Barr RG, Ahmed FS, Carr JJ. Subclinical atherosclerosis, airflow obstruction and emphysema: the MESA Lung Study. Eur. Respir J 2012; . 39(4), 846–54.
36. Feary JR, Rodrigues LC, Smith CJ, Hubbard RB, Gibson JE. Prevalence of major comorbidities in subjects with COPD and incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke: a comprehensive analysis using data from primary care. Thorax 2010; 65(11), 956–62
37. Tashkin DP, Celli B, Senn S et al. A 4-year trial of tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 2008; 359(15), 1543–54
38. Shemesh J, Henschke CI, Shaham D et al. Ordinal scoring of coronary artery calcifications on low-dose CT scans of the chest is predictive of death from cardiovascular disease. Radiology 2010;257(2), 541–8
39. Clegg A, Young J, Iliffe S, Rikkert MO, Rockwood K. Frailty in elderly people. The Lancet 2013; 381(9868), 752–62
40. Hubbard RE, Andrew MK, Fallah N, Rockwood K. Comparison of the prognostic importance of diagnosed diabetes, co-morbidity and frailty in older people. Diab. Med.2010; 27(5), 603–6
41. Galizia G, Cacciatore F, Testa G. Role of clinical frailty on long-term mortality of elderly subjects with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Aging Clin.Exp. Res.2011; 23(2), 118–25
42. Vaz Fragoso CA, Enright PL, Mcavay G, Van Ness PH, Gill TM. Frailty and respiratory impairment in older persons. Am. J. Med 2012; 125(1), 79–86
43. Smith BM, Pinto L, Ezer N, Sverzellati N, Muro S, Schwartzman K. Emphysema detected on computed tomography and risk of lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lung Cancer 2012; 77(1), 58–63
44. Aberle DR, Adams AM, Berg CD et al. Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening. N.Engl. J. Med 2011; 365(5), 395–409
45. Horvath I, Lazar Z, Gyulai N, Kollai M, Losonczy G. Exhaled biomarkers in lung cancer. Eur. Respir. J 2009; 34(1), 261–75
46. Collins PF, Elia M, Stratton RJ. Nutritional support and functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology 2013; 18(4), 616–29
47. Laurin C, Moullec G, Bacon SL, Lavoie KL. Impact of anxiety and depression on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation risk. Am. J. Respir. Crit. CareMed 2012; 185(9), 918–23
48. Arnaud C, Burger F, Steffens S, et al. Statins reduce interleukin-6-induced C-reactive protein in human hepatocytes: new evidence for direct antiinflammatory effects of statins. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:1231-6.
49. Sin DD, Anthonisen NR, Soriano JB, Agusti AG. Mortality in COPD: role of comorbidities. Eur Respir J. 2006;28:1245-57.