Inicio > Medicina Interna > La gota y sus comorbilidades. Amiga o enemiga > Página 5

La gota y sus comorbilidades. Amiga o enemiga

los uratos a <0.36 mmol/l es crítica para el manejo a largo plazo de la hiperuricemia en la gota.

Referencias bibliográficas

1. Richette P, Bardin T. Gout. Lancet 2010;375:318–28.
2. Riches PL, Wright AF, Ralston SH. Recent insights into the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and gout. Hum Mol Genet 2009;18:R177–84.
3. Doherty M. New insights into the epidemiology of gout. Rheumatology 2009;48:ii2–8.
4. Feig DI, Kang D-H, Johnson RJ. Uric acid and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1811–21.
5. Annemans L, Spaepen E, Gaskin M. Gout in the UK and Germany: prevalence, comorbidities and management in general practice 2000–2005. Ann Rheum Dis 2008;67:960–6.
6. Feig DI, Johnson RJ. Uric acid and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med 2009;360:540–1.
7. Perez-Ruiz F. Treating to target: a strategy to cure gout. Rheumatology 2009;48:ii9–14.
8. Vitart V, Rudan I, Hayward C. SLC2A9 is a newly identified urate transporter influencing serum urate concentration, urate excretion and gout. Nat Genet 2008;40:437–42.
9. Johnson RJ, Rideout BA. Uric acid and diet–insights into epidemic of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1071–3.
10. Arredondo Bruce A. Guerrero Jimenez G. La gota una antigua enfermedad con un nuevo enfoque. [Internet] Portalesmédicos.[Citado mayo 2013] 2011; (VI). 7. Disponible en:
11. Simmonds HA, McBride MB, Hatfield PJ, Graham R, McCaskey J, Jackson M. Polynesian women are also at risk for hyperuricaemia and gout because of a genetic defect in renal urate handling. Br J Rheumatol 1994;33:932–7.
12. Hollis-Moffatt JE, Xu X, Dalbeth N. Role of the urate transporter SLC2A9 gene in susceptibility to gout in New Zealand Maori, Pacific Island and Caucasian case-control sample sets. Arthritis Rheum 2009;60:3485–92.
13. Rider TG, Jordan KM. The modern management of gout. Rheumatology 2010;49:5–14.
14. Hayashi S, Fujiwara S, Noguchi T. Evolution of urate-degrading enzymes in animal peroxisomes. Cell Biochem Biophys 2000;32:123–9.
15. Stamp, L K. Chapman. P T. Gout and Its Comorbidities. Implications for Therapy. Rheumatology. 2013;52(1):34-44.
16. Watanabe S, Kang DH, Feng L. Uric acid, hominoid evolution and the pathogenesis of salt-sensitivity. Hypertension 2002;40:355–60.
17. Johnson RJ, Kang DH, Feig D. Is there a pathogenetic role for uric acid in hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease? Hypertension 2003;41:1183–90.
18. Varela-Echevarría A, Montes de Oca-Luna R, Barrera-Saldaña HA. Uricase protein sequences: conserved during vertebrate evolution but absent in humans. FASEB J 1988;2:3092–6.
19. Oda M, Satta Y, Takenaka O, Takahata N. Loss of urate oxidase activity in hominoids and its evolutionary implications. Mol Biol Evol 2002;19:640–53.
20. Wu X, Muzny DM, Lee CC, Caskey CT. Two independent mutational events in the loss of urate oxidase during hominoid evolution. J Mol Evol 1992;34:78–84.
21. Jhonson RJ, Titte S, Cade JR, Rideout BA, Oliver WJ. Uric acid, evolution and primitive cultures. Semin Nephrol 2005;25:3–8.
22. Wu X, Wakamiya M, Vaishnav S. Hyperuricemia and urate nephropathy in urate oxidase-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91:742–6.
23. Christen P, Peackock WC, Christen AE, Wacker WE. Urate oxidase in primate phylogenesis. Eur J Biochem 1970;12:3–5.
24. Kutzing MK, Firestein BL. Altered uric acid levels and disease states. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2008;324:1–7.
25. Glantzounis G, Tsimoyiannis E, Kappas A, Galaris D. Uric acid and oxidative stress. Curr Pharm Des 2005;11:4145–51.
26. Parmar MS. Uric acid and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med 2009;360:539.
27. Spitsin SV, Scott GS, Mikheeva T. Comparison of uric acid and ascorbic acid in protection against EAE. Free Radic Biol Med 2002;33:1363–71.
28. Sohal RS. Role of oxidative stress and protein oxidation in the aging process. Free Radic Biol Med 2002;33:37–44.
29. Jang YC, Pérez VI, Song W. Overexpression of Mn superoxide dismutase does not increase life span in mice. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2009;64:1114–25.
30. López-Torres M, Pérez-Campo R, Rojas C, Cadenas S, Barja G. Maximum life span in vertebrates. Relationship with liver antioxidant enzymes, glutathione system, ascorbate, urate, sensitivity to peroxidation, true malondialdehyde, in vivo H2O2, and basal and maximum aerobic capacity. Mech Ageing Dev 1993;70:177–99.
31. Zhang Y, Ikeno Y, Qi W. Mice deficient in both Mn superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase-1 have increased oxidative damage and a greater incidence of pathology but no reduction in longevity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2009;64:1212–20.
32. Mikuls TR, Farrar JT, Bilker WB. Gout epidemiology: results from the UK General Practice Research Database, 1990–1999. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 267–72.
33. Lawrence RC, Felson DT, Helmick CG. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part II. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58: 26–35.
34. Nan H, Qiao Q, Dong Y. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in a population of the coastal city of Qingdao, China. J Rheumatol 2006; 33: 1346–50.